# Using @snoopi_deep results for precompilation

Improving inferrability, specialization, and precompilability may sometimes feel like "eating your vegetables": really good for you, but it sometimes feels like work. (Depending on tastes, of course; I love vegetables.) While we've already gotten some payoff, now we're going to collect an additional reward for our hard work: the "dessert" of adding precompile directives. It's worth emphasing that if we hadn't done the analysis of inference triggers and made improvements to our package, the benefit of adding precompile directives would have been substantially smaller.

## Running work

One of the simplest ways to force precompilation is to execute code. This has several advantages:

• It is typically more robust across Julia versions
• It automatically handles architecture differences like 32- vs 64-bit machines
• It precompiles even the runtime-dispatch dependencies of a command if the dependent methods are in the same package. This typically results in much shorter precompile files than those that explicitly use precompile.

This approach looks like the following:

module MyPkg

# All of your code that defines MyPkg goes here

# precompile as the final step of the module definition:
if ccall(:jl_generating_output, Cint, ()) == 1   # if we're precompiling the package
let
x = rand(Int, 5)
my_function(x)  # this will force precompilation my_function(::Vector{Int})
end
end

end   # module MyPkg

When your module is being precompiled ([ Info: Precompiling MyPkg [...]), just before the module "closes" your block of work will be executed. This forces compilation, and these compiled MethodInstances will be cached.

After adding such directives, it's recommended to check the flamegraph again and see if there are any major omissions. You may need to add similar directives to some of the packages you depend on: precompilation is only effective if performed from the module that owns the method. (One advantage of parcel is that it automatically assigns precompile directives to the appropriate package.)

Note

The work done inside this block is only executed when the package is being precompiled, not when it is loaded with using MyPkg. Precompilation essentially takes a "snapshot" of the module; using just reloads that snapshot, it does not re-execute all the commands used to produce that snapshot.

The only role for the ccall is to prevent this work from being done if you've started Julia with --compiled-modules=no.

Warn

This style of precompilation may be undesirable or impossible if your statements have side effects like opening new windows. In such cases, you may be able to use it for lower-level calls.

## Parcel

precompile directives have to be emitted by the module that owns the method. SnoopCompile comes with a tool, parcel, that splits out the "root-most" precompilable MethodInstances into their constituent modules. In our case, since we've made almost every call precompilable, this will typically correspond to the bottom row of boxes in the flame graph. In cases where you have some non-precompilable MethodInstances, they will include MethodInstances from higher up in the call tree.

Let's use SnoopCompile.parcel on OptimizeMeFixed in its current state:

julia> ttot, pcs = SnoopCompile.parcel(tinf);

julia> ttot
0.6084431670000001

julia> pcs
4-element Vector{Pair{Module, Tuple{Float64, Vector{Tuple{Float64, Core.MethodInstance}}}}}:
Core => (0.000135179, [(0.000135179, MethodInstance for (NamedTuple{(:sizehint,), T} where T<:Tuple)(::Tuple{Int64}))])
Base => (0.028383533000000002, [(3.2456e-5, MethodInstance for getproperty(::IOBuffer, ::Symbol)), (4.7474e-5, MethodInstance for ==(::Type, ::Nothing)), (5.7944e-5, MethodInstance for typeinfo_eltype(::Type)), (0.00039092299999999994, MethodInstance for show(::IOContext{IOBuffer}, ::Any)), (0.000433143, MethodInstance for IOContext(::IOBuffer, ::IOContext{Base.TTY})), (0.000484984, MethodInstance for Pair{Symbol, DataType}(::Any, ::Any)), (0.000742383, MethodInstance for print(::IOContext{Base.TTY}, ::String, ::String, ::Vararg{String, N} where N)), (0.001293705, MethodInstance for Pair(::Symbol, ::Type)), (0.0018914350000000003, MethodInstance for show(::IOContext{IOBuffer}, ::UInt16)), (0.010604793000000001, MethodInstance for show(::IOContext{IOBuffer}, ::Tuple{String, Int64})), (0.012404293, MethodInstance for show(::IOContext{IOBuffer}, ::Vector{Int64}))])
Base.Ryu => (0.15733664599999997, [(0.05721630600000001, MethodInstance for writeshortest(::Vector{UInt8}, ::Int64, ::Float32, ::Bool, ::Bool, ::Bool, ::Int64, ::UInt8, ::Bool, ::UInt8, ::Bool, ::Bool)), (0.10012033999999997, MethodInstance for show(::IOContext{IOBuffer}, ::Float32))])
Main.OptimizeMeFixed => (0.4204474180000001, [(0.4204474180000001, MethodInstance for main())])

This tells us that a total of ~0.6s were spent on inference. parcel discovered precompilable MethodInstances for four modules, Core, Base, Base.Ryu, and OptimizeMeFixed. These are listed in increasing order of inference time.

Let's look specifically at OptimizeMeFixed, since that's under our control:

julia> pcmod = pcs[end]
Main.OptimizeMeFixed => (0.4204474180000001, Tuple{Float64, Core.MethodInstance}[(0.4204474180000001, MethodInstance for main())])

julia> tmod, tpcs = pcmod.second;

julia> tmod
0.4204474180000001

julia> tpcs
1-element Vector{Tuple{Float64, Core.MethodInstance}}:
(0.4204474180000001, MethodInstance for main())

0.42s of that time is due to OptimizeMeFixed, and parcel discovered a single MethodInstances to precompile, main().

We could look at the other modules (packages) similarly.

## SnoopCompile.write

You can generate files that contain ready-to-use precompile directives using SnoopCompile.write:

julia> SnoopCompile.write("/tmp/precompiles_OptimizeMe", pcs)
Core: no precompile statements out of 0.000135179
Base: precompiled 0.026194226 out of 0.028383533000000002
Base.Ryu: precompiled 0.15733664599999997 out of 0.15733664599999997
Main.OptimizeMeFixed: precompiled 0.4204474180000001 out of 0.4204474180000001
Tip

For packages that support just Julia 1.6 and higher, you may be able to slim down the precompile file by adding has_bodyfunction=true to the arguments for write. This setting applies for all packges in pcs, so you may need to call write twice (with both false and true) and select the appropriate precompile file for each package.

You'll now find a directory /tmp/precompiles_OptimizeMe, and inside you'll find three files, for Base, Base.Ryu, and OptimizeMeFixed, respectively. The contents of the last of these should be recognizable:

function _precompile_()
ccall(:jl_generating_output, Cint, ()) == 1 || return nothing
Base.precompile(Tuple{typeof(main)})   # time: 0.4204474
end

The first ccall line ensures we only pay the cost of running these precompile directives if we're building the package; this is relevant mostly if you're running Julia with --compiled-modules=no, which can be a convenient way to disable precompilation and examine packages in their "native state." (It would also matter if you've set __precompile__(false) at the top of your module, but if so why are you reading this?)

This file is ready to be moved into the OptimizeMe repository and included into your module definition. Since we added warmup manually, you could consider moving precompile(warmup, ()) into this function.

In general, it's recommended to run precompilation from inside a block

if Base.VERSION >= v"1.4.2"
include("precompile.jl")
_precompile_()
end

because earlier versions of Julia occasionally crashed on certain precompile directives. It's also perfectly fine to omit the function call, and use

if Base.VERSION >= v"1.4.2"
Base.precompile(Tuple{typeof(main)})   # time: 0.4204474
precompile(warmup, ())
end

directly in the OptimizeMeFixed module, usually as the last block of the module definition.

You might also consider submitting some of the other files (or their precompile directives) to the packages you depend on. In some cases, the specific argument type combinations may be too "niche" to be worth specializing; one such case is found here, a show method for Tuple{String, Int64} for Base. But in other cases, these may be very worthy additions to the package.

## Final results

Let's check out the final results of adding these precompile directives to OptimizeMeFixed. First, let's build both modules as precompiled packages:

ulia> push!(LOAD_PATH, ".")
4-element Vector{String}:
"@"
"@v#.#"
"@stdlib"
"."

julia> using OptimizeMe
[ Info: Precompiling OptimizeMe [top-level]

julia> using OptimizeMeFixed
[ Info: Precompiling OptimizeMeFixed [top-level]

Now in fresh sessions,

julia> @time (using OptimizeMe; OptimizeMe.main())
3.14 is great
2.718 is jealous
⋮
Object x: 7
3.159908 seconds (10.63 M allocations: 582.091 MiB, 5.19% gc time, 99.67% compilation time)

versus

julia> @time (using OptimizeMeFixed; OptimizeMeFixed.main())
3.14 is great
2.718 is jealous
⋮
Object x: 7
1.840034 seconds (5.38 M allocations: 289.402 MiB, 5.03% gc time, 96.70% compilation time)

We've cut down on the latency by nearly a factor of two. Moreover, if Julia someday caches generated code, we're well-prepared to capitalize on the benefits, because the same improvements in "code ownership" are almost certain to pay dividends there too.

If you inspect the results, you may sometimes suffer a few disappointments: some methods that we expected to precompile don't "take." At the moment there appears to be a small subset of methods that fail to precompile, and the reasons are not yet widely understood. At present, the best advice seems to be to comment-out any precompile directives that don't "take," since otherwise they increase the build time for the package without material benefit. These failures may be addressed in future versions of Julia. It's also worth appreciating how much we have succeeded in reducing latency, with the awareness that we may be able to get even greater benefit in the future.

## Summary

@snoopi_deep collects enough data to learn which methods are triggering inference, how heavily methods are being specialized, and so on. Examining your code from the standpoint of inference and specialization may be unfamiliar at first, but like other aspects of package development (testing, documentation, and release compatibility management) it can lead to significant improvements in the quality-of-life for you and your users. By optimizing your packages and then adding precompile directives, you can often cut down substantially on latency.