# Reference

## Data collection

SnoopCompileCore.@snooprMacro
list = @snoopr expr

Capture method cache invalidations triggered by evaluating expr. list is a sequence of invalidated Core.MethodInstances together with "explanations," consisting of integers (encoding depth) and strings (documenting the source of an invalidation).

Unless you are working at a low level, you essentially always want to pass list directly to SnoopCompile.invalidation_trees.

Extended help

list is in a format where the "reason" comes after the items. Method deletion results in the sequence

[zero or more (mi, "invalidate_mt_cache") pairs..., zero or more (depth1 tree, loctag) pairs..., method, loctag] with loctag = "jl_method_table_disable"

where mi means a MethodInstance. depth1 means a sequence starting at depth=1.

Method insertion results in the sequence

[zero or more (depth0 tree, sig) pairs..., same info as with delete_method except loctag = "jl_method_table_insert"]
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SnoopCompileCore.@snoopi_deepMacro
tinf = @snoopi_deep commands

Produce a profile of julia's type inference, recording the amount of time spent inferring every MethodInstance processed while executing commands. Each fresh entrance to type inference (whether executed directly in commands or because a call was made by runtime-dispatch) also collects a backtrace so the caller can be identified.

tinf is a tree, each node containing data on a particular inference "frame" (the method, argument-type specializations, parameters, and even any constant-propagated values). Each reports the exclusive/inclusive times, where the exclusive time corresponds to the time spent inferring this frame in and of itself, whereas the inclusive time includes the time needed to infer all the callees of this frame.

The top-level node in this profile tree is ROOT. Uniquely, its exclusive time corresponds to the time spent not in julia's type inference (codegen, llvm_opt, runtime, etc).

There are many different ways of inspecting and using the data stored in tinf. The simplest is to load the AbstracTrees package and display the tree with AbstractTrees.print_tree(tinf). See also: flamegraph, flatten, inference_triggers, SnoopCompile.parcel, runtime_inferencetime.

Example

julia> tinf = @snoopi_deep begin
sort(rand(100))  # Evaluate some code and profile julia's type inference
end
InferenceTimingNode: 0.110018224/0.131464476 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 2 direct children
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SnoopCompileCore.@snoopiMacro
inf_timing = @snoopi commands
inf_timing = @snoopi tmin=0.0 commands

Execute commands while snooping on inference. Returns an array of (t, linfo) tuples, where t is the amount of time spent inferring linfo (a MethodInstance).

Methods that take less time than tmin will not be reported.

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SnoopCompileCore.@snoopcMacro
@snoopc "compiledata.csv" begin
# Commands to execute, in a new process
end

causes the julia compiler to log all functions compiled in the course of executing the commands to the file "compiledata.csv". This file can be used for the input to SnoopCompile.read.

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SnoopCompileCore.@snooplMacro
@snoopl "func_names.csv" "llvm_timings.yaml" begin
# Commands to execute, in a new process
end

causes the julia compiler to log timing information for LLVM optimization during the provided commands to the files "funcnames.csv" and "llvmtimings.yaml". These files can be used for the input to SnoopCompile.read_snoopl("func_names.csv", "llvm_timings.yaml").

The logs contain the amount of time spent optimizing each "llvm module", and information about each module, where a module is a collection of functions being optimized together.

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## GUIs

SnoopCompile.flamegraphFunction
flamegraph(tinf::InferenceTimingNode; tmin=0.0, excluded_modules=Set([Main]), mode=nothing)

Convert the call tree of inference timings returned from @snoopi_deep into a FlameGraph. Returns a FlameGraphs.FlameGraph structure that represents the timing trace recorded for type inference.

Frames that take less than tmin seconds of inclusive time will not be included in the resultant FlameGraph (meaning total time including it and all of its children). This can be helpful if you have a very big profile, to save on processing time.

Non-precompilable frames are marked in reddish colors. excluded_modules can be used to mark methods defined in modules to which you cannot or do not wish to add precompiles.

mode controls how frames are named in tools like ProfileView. nothing uses the default of just the qualified function name, whereas supplying mode=Dict(method => count) counting the number of specializations of each method will cause the number of specializations to be included in the frame name.

Example

We'll use SnoopCompile.flatten_demo, which runs @snoopi_deep on a workload designed to yield reproducible results:

julia> tinf = SnoopCompile.flatten_demo()
InferenceTimingNode: 0.002148974/0.002767166 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 1 direct children

julia> fg = flamegraph(tinf)
Node(FlameGraphs.NodeData(ROOT() at typeinfer.jl:75, 0x00, 0:3334431))
julia> ProfileView.view(fg);  # Display the FlameGraph in a package that supports it

You should be able to reconcile the resulting flamegraph to print_tree(tinf) (see flatten).

The empty horizontal periods in the flamegraph correspond to times when something other than inference is running. The total width of the flamegraph is set from the ROOT node.

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SnoopCompile.pgdsguiFunction
methodref, ax = pgdsgui(tinf::InferenceTimingNode; consts::Bool=true, by=inclusive)
methodref     = pgdsgui(ax, tinf::InferenceTimingNode; kwargs...)

Create a scatter plot comparing: - (vertical axis) the inference time for all instances of each Method, as captured by tinf; - (horizontal axis) the run time cost, as estimated by capturing a @profile before calling this function.

Each dot corresponds to a single method. The face color encodes the number of times that method was inferred, and the edge color corresponds to the fraction of the runtime spent on runtime dispatch (black is 0%, bright red is 100%). Clicking on a dot prints the method (or location, if inlined) to the REPL, and sets methodref[] to that method.

ax is the pyplot axis of the scatterplot.

Compat

pgdsgui depends on PyPlot via the Requires.jl package. You must load both SnoopCompile and PyPlot for this function to be defined.

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## Analysis of invalidations

SnoopCompile.uinvalidatedFunction
umis = uinvalidated(invlist)

Return the unique invalidated MethodInstances. invlist is obtained from SnoopCompileCore.@snoopr. This is similar to filtering for MethodInstances in invlist, except that it discards any tagged "invalidate_mt_cache". These can typically be ignored because they are nearly inconsequential: they do not invalidate any compiled code, they only transiently affect an optimization of runtime dispatch.

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SnoopCompile.invalidation_treesFunction
trees = invalidation_trees(list)

Parse list, as captured by SnoopCompileCore.@snoopr, into a set of invalidation trees, where parents nodes were called by their children.

Example

julia> f(x::Int)  = 1
f (generic function with 1 method)

julia> f(x::Bool) = 2
f (generic function with 2 methods)

julia> applyf(container) = f(container[1])
applyf (generic function with 1 method)

julia> callapplyf(container) = applyf(container)
callapplyf (generic function with 1 method)

julia> c = Any[1]
1-element Array{Any,1}:
1

julia> callapplyf(c)
1

julia> trees = invalidation_trees(@snoopr f(::AbstractFloat) = 3)
1-element Array{SnoopCompile.MethodInvalidations,1}:
inserting f(::AbstractFloat) in Main at REPL[36]:1 invalidated:
mt_backedges: 1: signature Tuple{typeof(f),Any} triggered MethodInstance for applyf(::Array{Any,1}) (1 children) more specific

See the documentation for further details.

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SnoopCompile.filtermodFunction
modtrigs = filtermod(mod::Module, mtrigs::AbstractVector{MethodTriggers})

Select just the method-based triggers arising from a particular module.

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thinned = filtermod(module, trees::AbstractVector{MethodInvalidations}; recursive=false)

Select just the cases of invalidating a method defined in module.

If recursive is false, only the roots of trees are examined (i.e., the proximal source of the invalidation must be in module). If recursive is true, then thinned contains all routes to a method in module.

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SnoopCompile.findcallerFunction
methinvs = findcaller(method::Method, trees)

Find a path through trees that reaches method. Returns a single MethodInvalidations object.

Examples

Suppose you know that loading package SomePkg triggers invalidation of f(data). You can find the specific source of invalidation as follows:

f(data)                             # run once to force compilation
m = @which f(data)
using SnoopCompile
trees = invalidation_trees(@snoopr using SomePkg)
methinvs = findcaller(m, trees)

If you don't know which method to look for, but know some operation that has had added latency, you can look for methods using @snoopi. For example, suppose that loading SomePkg makes the next using statement slow. You can find the source of trouble with

julia> using SnoopCompile

julia> trees = invalidation_trees(@snoopr using SomePkg);

julia> tinf = @snoopi using SomePkg            # this second using will need to recompile code invalidated above
1-element Array{Tuple{Float64,Core.MethodInstance},1}:
(0.08518409729003906, MethodInstance for require(::Module, ::Symbol))

julia> m = tinf[1][2].def

julia> findcaller(m, trees)
inserting ==(x, y::SomeType) in SomeOtherPkg at /path/to/code:100 invalidated:
backedges: 1: superseding ==(x, y) in Base at operators.jl:83 with MethodInstance for ==(::Symbol, ::Any) (16 children) more specific
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## Analysis of @snoopi_deep

SnoopCompile.flattenFunction
flatten(tinf; tmin = 0.0, sortby=exclusive)

Flatten the execution graph of InferenceTimingNodes returned from @snoopi_deep into a Vector of InferenceTiming frames, each encoding the time needed for inference of a single MethodInstance. By default, results are sorted by exclusive time (the time for inferring the MethodInstance itself, not including any inference of its callees); other options are sortedby=inclusive which includes the time needed for the callees, or nothing to obtain them in the order they were inferred (depth-first order).

Example

We'll use SnoopCompile.flatten_demo, which runs @snoopi_deep on a workload designed to yield reproducible results:

julia> tinf = SnoopCompile.flatten_demo()
InferenceTimingNode: 0.002148974/0.002767166 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 1 direct children

julia> using AbstractTrees; print_tree(tinf)
InferenceTimingNode: 0.00242354/0.00303526 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 1 direct children
└─ InferenceTimingNode: 0.000150891/0.000611721 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.packintype(::Int64) with 2 direct children
├─ InferenceTimingNode: 0.000105318/0.000105318 on InferenceFrameInfo for MyType{Int64}(::Int64) with 0 direct children
└─ InferenceTimingNode: 9.43e-5/0.000355512 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.dostuff(::MyType{Int64}) with 2 direct children
├─ InferenceTimingNode: 6.6458e-5/0.000124716 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.extract(::MyType{Int64}) with 2 direct children
│  ├─ InferenceTimingNode: 3.401e-5/3.401e-5 on InferenceFrameInfo for getproperty(::MyType{Int64}, ::Symbol) with 0 direct children
│  └─ InferenceTimingNode: 2.4248e-5/2.4248e-5 on InferenceFrameInfo for getproperty(::MyType{Int64}, x::Symbol) with 0 direct children
└─ InferenceTimingNode: 0.000136496/0.000136496 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.domath(::Int64) with 0 direct children

Note the printing of getproperty(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64}, x::Symbol): it shows the specific Symbol, here :x, that getproperty was inferred with. This reflects constant-propagation in inference.

Then:

julia> flatten(tinf; sortby=nothing)
8-element Vector{SnoopCompileCore.InferenceTiming}:
InferenceTiming: 0.002423543/0.0030352639999999998 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT()
InferenceTiming: 0.000150891/0.0006117210000000001 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.packintype(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 0.000105318/0.000105318 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64}(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 9.43e-5/0.00035551200000000005 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.dostuff(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64})
InferenceTiming: 6.6458e-5/0.000124716 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.extract(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64})
InferenceTiming: 3.401e-5/3.401e-5 on InferenceFrameInfo for getproperty(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64}, ::Symbol)
InferenceTiming: 2.4248e-5/2.4248e-5 on InferenceFrameInfo for getproperty(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64}, x::Symbol)
InferenceTiming: 0.000136496/0.000136496 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.domath(::Int64)
julia> flatten(tinf; tmin=1e-4)                        # sorts by exclusive time (the time before the '/')
4-element Vector{SnoopCompileCore.InferenceTiming}:
InferenceTiming: 0.000105318/0.000105318 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64}(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 0.000136496/0.000136496 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.domath(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 0.000150891/0.0006117210000000001 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.packintype(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 0.002423543/0.0030352639999999998 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT()

julia> flatten(tinf; sortby=inclusive, tmin=1e-4)      # sorts by inclusive time (the time after the '/')
6-element Vector{SnoopCompileCore.InferenceTiming}:
InferenceTiming: 0.000105318/0.000105318 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64}(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 6.6458e-5/0.000124716 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.extract(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64})
InferenceTiming: 0.000136496/0.000136496 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.domath(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 9.43e-5/0.00035551200000000005 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.dostuff(::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{Int64})
InferenceTiming: 0.000150891/0.0006117210000000001 on InferenceFrameInfo for SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.packintype(::Int64)
InferenceTiming: 0.002423543/0.0030352639999999998 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT()

As you can see, sortby affects not just the order but also the selection of frames; with exclusive times, dostuff did not on its own rise above threshold, but it does when using inclusive times.

See also: accumulate_by_source.

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SnoopCompile.accumulate_by_sourceFunction
accumulate_by_source(flattened; tmin = 0.0, by=exclusive)

Add the inference timings for all MethodInstances of a single Method together. flattened is the output of flatten. Returns a list of (t, method) tuples.

When the accumulated time for a Method is large, but each instance is small, it indicates that it is being inferred for many specializations (which might include specializations with different constants).

Example

We'll use SnoopCompile.flatten_demo, which runs @snoopi_deep on a workload designed to yield reproducible results:

julia> tinf = SnoopCompile.flatten_demo()
InferenceTimingNode: 0.002148974/0.002767166 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 1 direct children

julia> accumulate_by_source(flatten(tinf))
7-element Vector{Tuple{Float64, Union{Method, Core.MethodInstance}}}:
(6.0012999999999996e-5, getproperty(x, f::Symbol) in Base at Base.jl:33)
(6.7714e-5, extract(y::SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType) in SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:35)
(9.421e-5, dostuff(y) in SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:44)
(0.000112057, SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo.MyType{T}(x) where T in SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:34)
(0.000133895, domath(x) in SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:40)
(0.000154382, packintype(x) in SnoopCompile.FlattenDemo at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:36)
(0.003165266, ROOT() in Core.Compiler.Timings at compiler/typeinfer.jl:75)

Compared to the output from flatten, the two inferences passes on getproperty have been consolidated into a single aggregate call.

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mtrigs = accumulate_by_source(Method, itrigs::AbstractVector{InferenceTrigger})

Consolidate inference triggers via their caller method. mtrigs is a vector of Method=>list pairs, where list is a list of InferenceTriggers.

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loctrigs = accumulate_by_source(itrigs::AbstractVector{InferenceTrigger})

Aggregate inference triggers by location (function, file, and line number) of the caller.

Example

We collect data using the SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo:

julia> itrigs = inference_triggers(SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo())
2-element Vector{InferenceTrigger}:
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::UInt8) from calldouble1 (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:762) inlined into MethodInstance for calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}) (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:763)
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::Float64) from calldouble1 (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:762) inlined into MethodInstance for calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}) (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:763)

julia> accumulate_by_source(itrigs)
1-element Vector{SnoopCompile.LocationTriggers}:
calldouble1 at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:762 (2 callees from 1 callers)
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SnoopCompile.collect_forFunction
list = collect_for(m::Method, tinf::InferenceTimingNode)
list = collect_for(m::MethodInstance, tinf::InferenceTimingNode)

Collect all InferenceTimingNodes (descendants of tinf) that match m.

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SnoopCompile.staleinstancesFunction
staleinstances(tinf::InferenceTimingNode)

Return a list of InferenceTimingNodes corresponding to MethodInstances that have "stale" code (specifically, CodeInstances with outdated max_world world ages). These may be a hint that invalidation occurred while running the workload provided to @snoopi_deep, and consequently an important origin of (re)inference.

Warning

staleinstances only looks retrospectively for stale code; it does not distinguish whether the code became stale while running @snoopi_deep from whether it was already stale before execution commenced.

While staleinstances is recommended as a useful "sanity check" to run before performing a detailed analysis of inference, any serious examination of invalidation should use @snoopr.

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SnoopCompile.inference_triggersFunction
itrigs = inference_triggers(tinf::InferenceTimingNode; exclude_toplevel=true)

Collect the "triggers" of inference, each a fresh entry into inference via a call dispatched at runtime. All the entries in itrigs are previously uninferred, or are freshly-inferred for specific constant inputs.

exclude_toplevel determines whether calls made from the REPL, include, or test suites are excluded.

Example

We'll use SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo, which runs @snoopi_deep on a workload designed to yield reproducible results:

julia> tinf = SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo()
InferenceTimingNode: 0.004490576/0.004711168 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 2 direct children

julia> itrigs = inference_triggers(tinf)
2-element Vector{InferenceTrigger}:
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::UInt8) from calldouble1 (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:86) inlined into MethodInstance for calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}) (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:87)
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::Float64) from calldouble1 (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:86) inlined into MethodInstance for calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}) (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:87)
julia> edit(itrigs[1])     # opens an editor at the spot in the caller

julia> ascend(itrigs[2])   # use Cthulhu to inspect the stacktrace (caller is the second item in the trace)
Choose a call for analysis (q to quit):
>   double(::Float64)
calldouble1 at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:86 => calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}) at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:87
calleach(::Vector{Vector{Vector{Any}}}) at /pathto/SnoopCompile/src/deep_demos.jl:88
...
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SnoopCompile.trigger_treeFunction
root = trigger_tree(itrigs)

Organize inference triggers itrigs in tree format, grouping items via the call tree.

It is a tree rather than a more general graph due to the fact that caching inference results means that each node gets visited only once.

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SnoopCompile.suggestFunction
suggest(itrig::InferenceTrigger)

Analyze itrig and attempt to suggest an interpretation or remedy. This returns a structure of type Suggested; the easiest thing to do with the result is to show it; however, you can also filter a list of suggestions.

Example

julia> itrigs = inference_triggers(tinf);

julia> sugs = suggest.(itrigs);

julia> sugs_important = filter(!isignorable, sugs)    # discard the ones that probably don't need to be addressed
Warning

Suggestions are approximate at best; most often, the proposed fixes should not be taken literally, but instead taken as a hint about the "outcome" of a particular runtime dispatch incident. The suggestions target calls made with non-inferrable argumets, but often the best place to fix the problem is at an earlier stage in the code, where the argument was first computed.

You can get much deeper insight via ascend (and Cthulhu generally), and even stacktrace is often useful. Suggestions are intended to be a quick and easier-to-comprehend first pass at analyzing an inference trigger.

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SnoopCompile.callerinstanceFunction
mi = callerinstance(itrig::InferenceTrigger)

Return the MethodInstance mi of the caller in the selected stackframe in itrig.

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SnoopCompile.callingframeFunction
itrigcaller = callingframe(itrig::InferenceTrigger)

"Step out" one layer of the stacktrace, referencing the caller of the current frame of itrig.

You can retrieve the proximal trigger of inference with InferenceTrigger(itrigcaller).

Example

We collect data using the SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo:

julia> itrig = inference_triggers(SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo())[1]
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::UInt8) from calldouble1 (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:762) inlined into MethodInstance for calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}) (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:763)

julia> itrigcaller = callingframe(itrig)
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::UInt8) from calleach (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:764) with specialization MethodInstance for calleach(::Vector{Vector{Vector{Any}}})
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SnoopCompile.skiphigherorderFunction
itrignew = skiphigherorder(itrig; exact::Bool=false)

Attempt to skip over frames of higher-order functions that take the callee as a function-argument. This can be useful if you're analyzing inference triggers for an entire package and would prefer to assign triggers to package-code rather than Base functions like map!, broadcast, etc.

Example

We collect data using the SnoopCompile.itrigs_higherorder_demo:

julia> itrig = inference_triggers(SnoopCompile.itrigs_higherorder_demo())[1]
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::Float64) from mymap! (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:706) with specialization MethodInstance for mymap!(::typeof(SnoopCompile.ItrigHigherOrderDemo.double), ::Vector{Any}, ::Vector{Any})

julia> callingframe(itrig)      # step out one (non-inlined) frame
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::Float64) from mymap (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:710) with specialization MethodInstance for mymap(::typeof(SnoopCompile.ItrigHigherOrderDemo.double), ::Vector{Any})

julia> skiphigherorder(itrig)   # step out to frame that doesn't have double as a function-argument
Inference triggered to call MethodInstance for double(::Float64) from callmymap (/pathto/SnoopCompile/src/parcel_snoopi_deep.jl:711) with specialization MethodInstance for callmymap(::Vector{Any})
Warn

By default skiphigherorder is conservative, and insists on being sure that it's the callee being passed to the higher-order function. Higher-order functions that do not get specialized (e.g., with ::Function argument types) will not be skipped over. You can pass exact=false to allow ::Function to also be passed over, but keep in mind that this may falsely skip some frames.

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SnoopCompile.InferenceTriggerType
InferenceTrigger(callee::MethodInstance, callerframes::Vector{StackFrame}, btidx::Int, bt)

Organize information about the "triggers" of inference. callee is the MethodInstance requiring inference, callerframes, btidx and bt contain information about the caller. callerframes are the frame(s) of call site that triggered inference; it's a Vector{StackFrame}, rather than a single StackFrame, due to the possibility that the caller was inlined into something else, in which case the first entry is the direct caller and the last entry corresponds to the MethodInstance into which it was ultimately inlined. btidx is the index in bt, the backtrace collected upon entry into inference, corresponding to callerframes.

InferenceTriggers are created by calling inference_triggers. See also: callerinstance and callingframe.

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SnoopCompile.runtime_inferencetimeFunction
ridata = runtime_inferencetime(tinf::InferenceTimingNode; consts=true, by=inclusive)
ridata = runtime_inferencetime(tinf::InferenceTimingNode, profiledata; lidict, consts=true, by=inclusive)

Compare runtime and inference-time on a per-method basis. ridata[m::Method] returns (trun, tinfer, nspecializations), measuring the approximate amount of time spent running m, inferring m, and the number of type-specializations, respectively. trun is estimated from profiling data, which the user is responsible for capturing before the call. Typically tinf is collected via @snoopi_deep on the first call (in a fresh session) to a workload, and the profiling data collected on a subsequent call. In some cases you may need to repeat the workload several times to collect enough profiling samples.

profiledata and lidict are obtained from Profile.retrieve().

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SnoopCompile.parcelFunction

pc = parcel(calls; subst=[], exclusions=[]) assigns each compile statement to the module that owns the function. Perform string substitution via subst=["Module1"=>"Module2"], and omit functions in particular modules with exclusions=["Module3"]. On output, pc[:Module2] contains all the precompiles assigned to Module2.

Use SnoopCompile.write(prefix, pc) to generate a series of files in directory prefix, one file per module.

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ttot, pcs = SnoopCompile.parcel(tinf::InferenceTimingNode)

Parcel the "root-most" precompilable MethodInstances into separate modules. These can be used to generate precompile directives to cache the results of type-inference, reducing latency on first use.

Loosely speaking, and MethodInstance is precompilable if the module that owns the method also has access to all the types it need to precompile the instance. When the root node of an entrance to inference is not itself precompilable, parcel examines the children (and possibly, children's children...) until it finds the first node on each branch that is precompilable. MethodInstances are then assigned to the module that owns the method.

ttot is the total inference time; pcs is a list of module => (tmod, pclist) pairs. For each module, tmod is the amount of inference time affiliated with methods owned by that module; pclist is a list of (t, mi) time/MethodInstance tuples.

See also: SnoopCompile.write.

Example

We'll use SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo, which runs @snoopi_deep on a workload designed to yield reproducible results:

julia> tinf = SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo()
InferenceTimingNode: 0.004490576/0.004711168 on InferenceFrameInfo for Core.Compiler.Timings.ROOT() with 2 direct children

julia> ttot, pcs = SnoopCompile.parcel(tinf);

julia> ttot
0.000220592

julia> pcs
1-element Vector{Pair{Module, Tuple{Float64, Vector{Tuple{Float64, Core.MethodInstance}}}}}:
SnoopCompile.ItrigDemo => (0.000220592, [(9.8986e-5, MethodInstance for double(::Float64)), (0.000121606, MethodInstance for double(::UInt8))])

Since there was only one module, ttot is the same as tmod. The ItrigDemo module had two precomilable MethodInstances, each listed with its corresponding inclusive time.

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modtrigs = SnoopCompile.parcel(mtrigs::AbstractVector{MethodTriggers})

Split method-based triggers into collections organized by the module in which the methods were defined. Returns a module => list vector, with the module having the most MethodTriggers last.

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SnoopCompile.writeFunction
write(prefix::AbstractString, pc::Dict; always::Bool = false)

Write each modules' precompiles to a separate file. If always is true, the generated function will always run the precompile statements when called, otherwise the statements will only be called during package precompilation.

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## Other utilities

SnoopCompile.readFunction

SnoopCompile.read("compiledata.csv") reads the log file produced by the compiler and returns the functions as a pair of arrays. The first array is the amount of time required to compile each function, the second is the corresponding function + types. The functions are sorted in order of increasing compilation time. (The time does not include the cost of nested compiles.)

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SnoopCompile.read_snooplFunction
times, info = SnoopCompile.read_snoopl("func_names.csv", "llvm_timings.yaml"; tmin_secs=0.0)

Reads the log file produced by the compiler and returns the structured representations.

The results will only contain modules that took longer than tmin_secs to optimize.

Return value

• times contains the time spent optimizing each module, as a Pair from the time to an

array of Strings, one for every MethodInstance in that llvm module.

• info is a Dict containing statistics for each MethodInstance encountered, from before

and after optimization, including number of instructions and number of basicblocks.

Example

julia> @snoopl "func_names.csv" "llvm_timings.yaml" begin
using InteractiveUtils
@eval InteractiveUtils.peakflops()
end
Launching new julia process to run commands...
done.

julia> times, info = SnoopCompile.read_snoopl("func_names.csv", "llvm_timings.yaml", tmin_secs = 0.025);

julia> times
3-element Vector{Pair{Float64, Vector{String}}}:
0.028170923 => ["Tuple{typeof(LinearAlgebra.copy_transpose!), Array{Float64, 2}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}, Array{Float64, 2}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}}"]
0.031356962 => ["Tuple{typeof(Base.copyto!), Array{Float64, 2}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}, Array{Float64, 2}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}, Base.UnitRange{Int64}}"]
0.149138788 => ["Tuple{typeof(LinearAlgebra._generic_matmatmul!), Array{Float64, 2}, Char, Char, Array{Float64, 2}, Array{Float64, 2}, LinearAlgebra.MulAddMul{true, true, Bool, Bool}}"]

julia> info
Dict{String, NamedTuple{(:before, :after), Tuple{NamedTuple{(:instructions, :basicblocks), Tuple{Int64, Int64}}, NamedTuple{(:instructions, :basicblocks), Tuple{Int64, Int64}}}}} with 3 entries:
"Tuple{typeof(LinearAlgebra.copy_transpose!), Ar… => (before = (instructions = 651, basicblocks = 83), after = (instructions = 348, basicblocks = 40…
"Tuple{typeof(Base.copyto!), Array{Float64, 2}, … => (before = (instructions = 617, basicblocks = 77), after = (instructions = 397, basicblocks = 37…
"Tuple{typeof(LinearAlgebra._generic_matmatmul!)… => (before = (instructions = 4796, basicblocks = 824), after = (instructions = 1421, basicblocks =…
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SnoopCompile.format_userimgFunction

pc = format_userimg(calls; subst=[], exclusions=[]) generates precompile directives intended for your base/userimg.jl script. Use SnoopCompile.write(filename, pc) to create a file that you can include into userimg.jl.

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## Demos

SnoopCompile.flatten_demoFunction
tinf = SnoopCompile.flatten_demo()

A simple demonstration of @snoopi_deep. This demo defines a module

module FlattenDemo
struct MyType{T} x::T end
extract(y::MyType) = y.x
function packintype(x)
y = MyType{Int}(x)
return dostuff(y)
end
function domath(x)
y = x + x
return y*x + 2*x + 5
end
dostuff(y) = domath(extract(y))
end

It then "warms up" (forces inference on) all of Julia's Base methods needed for domath, to ensure that these MethodInstances do not need to be inferred when we collect the data. It then returns the results of

@snoopi_deep FlattenDemo.packintypes(1)

See flatten for an example usage.

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SnoopCompile.itrigs_demoFunction
tinf = SnoopCompile.itrigs_demo()

A simple demonstration of collecting inference triggers. This demo defines a module

module ItrigDemo
@noinline double(x) = 2x
@inline calldouble1(c) = double(c[1])
calldouble2(cc) = calldouble1(cc[1])
calleach(ccs) = (calldouble2(ccs[1]), calldouble2(ccs[2]))
end

It then "warms up" (forces inference on) calldouble2(::Vector{Vector{Any}}), calldouble1(::Vector{Any}), double(::Int):

cc = [Any[1]]
ItrigDemo.calleach([cc,cc])

Then it collects and returns inference data using

cc1, cc2 = [Any[0x01]], [Any[1.0]]
@snoopi_deep ItrigDemo.calleach([cc1, cc2])

This does not require any new inference for calldouble2 or calldouble1, but it does force inference on double with two new types. See inference_triggers to see what gets collected and returned.

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SnoopCompile.itrigs_higherorder_demoFunction
tinf = SnoopCompile.itrigs_higherorder_demo()

A simple demonstration of handling higher-order methods with inference triggers. This demo defines a module

module ItrigHigherOrderDemo
double(x) = 2x
@noinline function mymap!(f, dst, src)
for i in eachindex(dst, src)
dst[i] = f(src[i])
end
return dst
end
@noinline mymap(f::F, src) where F = mymap!(f, Vector{Any}(undef, length(src)), src)
callmymap(src) = mymap(double, src)
end

The key feature of this set of definitions is that the function double gets passed as an argument through mymap and mymap! (the latter are higher-order functions).

It then "warms up" (forces inference on) callmymap(::Vector{Any}), mymap(::typeof(double), ::Vector{Any}), mymap!(::typeof(double), ::Vector{Any}, ::Vector{Any}) and double(::Int):

ItrigHigherOrderDemo.callmymap(Any[1, 2])

Then it collects and returns inference data using

@snoopi_deep ItrigHigherOrderDemo.callmymap(Any[1.0, 2.0])

which forces inference for double(::Float64).

See skiphigherorder for an example using this demo.

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